Arabica Versus Robusta Coffee Beans: What’s the Difference?

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Photo courtesy of Black Rifle Coffee Company.

There are numerous types of coffee available. We usually think about this in terms of roasts, blends, and maybe even country of origin. There are espresso blends and breakfast blends, light roasts and dark roasts, 100 percent Colombian and Sumatra.

But at the most basic level, there are also a variety of coffee beans. The two that are most commonly cultivated for commercial use are Arabica and Robusta. But do you know the difference?

Growing Conditions

The two species of plants have a similar germination process, taking three to four years before they flower and produce fruit.

Sunlight on the coffee plantation - Brazil

A coffee plantation in Brazil. Photo by Andre Nery/Adobe Stock.

Andre Nery - stock.adobe.com

Robusta coffee plants are more, ahem, robust and insect resistant — they’re easier to grow and are more tolerant to changes in weather patterns. They also grow at lower altitudes. Robusta beans are grown almost exclusively in Africa and Indonesia, with Vietnam being a primary producer.

Arabica beans are grown at higher altitudes, yield less fruit per plant than Robusta, and generally don’t grow as tall. Arabica beans are primarily grown in Central and South America; Colombia only produces Arabica beans.

Price & Appearance

Due to the differences in their growth patterns and because Arabica beans are generally seen as superior to Robusta, Arabica beans are also more expensive. While that price is variable, Arabica beans are currently about $1.20 more per kilogram than Robusta on the commodities market.

It’s technically possible to differentiate between Robusta and Arabica beans simply by their shape. Arabica beans are elongated, and Robusta beans are more round.

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Adobe stock images.

Taste & Caffeine Content

Perhaps the most important difference between Robusta and Arabica beans is their taste and caffeine content — why else drink coffee except for that delicious boost of energy?

Arabica beans have a fruitier flavor with higher sugar and acidity levels. Robusta tends to be nuttier and more bitter. When it comes to caffeine content, however, Robusta takes the lead. At 2.7 percent, Robusta contains nearly double the 1.5 percent caffeine of Arabica.

Given this variance in levels of sugars and caffeine, it makes sense that the chemical makeup of the beans react differently in the roasting process, therefore yielding different flavors.

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Robusta beans can aid espresso blends by providing a deeper flavor and improving the crema. Photo courtesy of Black Rifle Coffee Company.

While consumers tend to prefer the flavor of Arabica beans, Robusta is often used in blends, especially for espresso, as it is said to boost the caffeine content, the crema, and also provide a deeper flavor.

Despite Robusta being seen as a generally inferior bean to Arabica, not all beans within their given category are created equal. High-quality Robusta beans can taste better — and cost more — than lower quality Arabica beans.

While Arabica seems to be the preferred bean of most coffee consumers, making up 70 percent of the world’s bean production, most grocery-store coffees are a blend of the two.

Katie McCarthy is the managing editor for Coffee or Die Magazine. Her career in journalism began at the Columbus (Georgia) Ledger-Enquirer in 2008, where she learned to navigate the newsroom as a features reporter, copy editor, page designer, and online producer; prior to joining Coffee or Die Magazine, she worked for Outdoor Sportsman Group as an editor for Guns & Ammo magazine and their Special Interest Publications division. Katie currently lives in Indiana with her husband and two daughters.
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